Common sign and symptoms of sleep apnea

 This is a medical condition characterized by poor breathing or breathing pauses during sleep. The condition can strike children and adults. The pauses can happen several times during the night and can last from only a couple of seconds to a few minutes. Individuals who experience this condition are sometimes unaware that they have it since the signs and symptoms can often be related to different things. Symptoms include sleepiness during the day, weakness, restless sleep, and poor vision.

Sleep apnea: what are the causes?

Sleep apnea occurs in mainly two forms, the causes of which differ fundamentally: as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and as central sleep apnea syndrome (ZSAS).

Obstructive sleep apnea

Most people with sleep apnea snore heavily. The cause of the repeated respiratory misfires during sleep is then typically a blockage (or obstruction) of the respiratory tract. Accordingly, this form of sleep disorder is called Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS).

The respiratory muscles continue working without interruption in obstructive sleep apnea. But the pharyngeal muscles relax during sleep, so that when inhaled creates a negative pressure that narrows the airways. The consequences are a lack of oxygen (O2) with simultaneous increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) with a significantly slower pulse rate. The increase in CO2 (so-called hypercapnia) leads to
i in the brain the respiratory drive rises,
ii so that those affected breathe faster and deeper ( hyperventilation ),
iii the respiratory tract opens again and
iv at the same time the heart rate increases.

In the process, those affected change from a deep to an easier sleep phase. This so-called respiratory arousal disturbs sleep and thus causes the typical during sleep apnea daytime fatigue.
When the muscles relax on the palate during sleep, the airways are blocked in sleep apnea (right).

The following factors may favor obstructive sleep apnea or aggravate the syndrome:

i strong overweight ( obesity )
ii nasal polyps
iii enlarged throat almonds
iv enlarged tongue (macroglossia)
v alcohol
vi Smoke
vii sedative
viii Diabetes mellitus
ix metabolic syndrome (ie, a confluence of multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, such as: obesity, elevated cholesterol , blood pressure,and blood glucose levels )
x Heart failure (heart failure)
xi Sleep in the supine position

Central sleep apnea

If no respiratory movements can be detected from time to time in the case of sleep apnea, this indicates a central sleep apnea syndrome (ZSAS). Here, the respiratory drive - and thus the respiratory muscles - repeatedly, because the respiratory regulation is disturbed .
The cause of central sleep apnea is a disturbance of the respiratory center in the brain. If the respiratory muscles are temporarily inoperable, this also leads to a lack of oxygen with a rise in carbon dioxide and triggers a wake-up reaction.

Central sleep apnea occurs, for example, during Cheyne-Stokes respiration : this is a form of periodic breathing in which the person alternately breathes faster and deeper and then slower and shallower breathing until the breath comes. Men are affected more often than women. Possible causes are:
i Damaged respiratory center as a result of inflammation (encephalitis) or circulatory disorders in the brain
ii inhibited respiratory center (central respiratory depression) due to certain drugs, drugs or other substances
iii Heart disease associated with slowed blood circulation
A central sleep apnea with Cheyne-Stokes respiration can be found in ...
iv up to 50 percent of all people who have heart failure with morbidly reduced pump function (so-called systolic heart failure).
v around 26 percent of people who have recently had a stroke .
However, even a healthy person can develop a central sleep apnea in Cheyne-Stokes respiration - for example, after he has risen to high altitude in a short time (so-called height-related periodic breathing ).
In rare cases, no underlying disease as the cause of the disorder of the respiratory drive can be determined: doctors call this the primary central sleep apnea.

The obstructive sleep apnea is significantly with a share of around 90 percent more often than the central form. Overall, among the over-40s, approximately 4 percent of men and 2 percent of women have obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, with incidence increasing with age.

In people with cardiovascular disease, obstructive sleep apnea is two to three times more common than in the general population. In addition, the majority of those affected are clearly overweight.
If you  have very severe depression and anger problems and you’re hoping that it’s caused by my sleep apnea. By the way, I have been trying to sleep every night with a CPAP machine and Mask for the past year and  never slept with it on for more than a couple of hours.

About Author:

Neil Wilson 10 years of experience in the healthcare field and managed a home health care company for a few years and learned more, he enjoy share experience & knowledge to his blog
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